PGP SIGNED MESSAGE-----
CERT Advisory CA-2002-36 Multiple Vulnerabilities in SSH Implementations
issue date: December 16, 2002
Last revised: --
revision history is at the end of this file.
shell (SSH) protocol implementations in SSH clients and
servers from multiple vendors
vendors' implementations of the secure shell (SSH) transport
layer protocol contain vulnerabilities that could allow a remote
attacker to execute arbitrary code with the privileges of the SSH
process or cause a denial of service. The vulnerabilities affect SSH
clients and servers, and they occur before user authentication takes
protocol enables a secure communications channel from a client
to a server. From the IETF draft SSH Transport Layer Protocol:
transport layer is a secure low level transport protocol.
It provides strong encryption, cryptographic host authentication,
and integrity protection.... Key exchange method, public key
algorithm, symmetric encryption algorithm, message authentication
algorithm, and hash algorithm are all negotiated.
has developed a suite (SSHredder) of test cases that examine
the connection initialization, key exchange, and negotiation phase
(KEX, KEXINIT) of the SSH transport layer protocol. The suite tests
the way an SSH transport layer implementation handles invalid or
incorrect packet and string lengths, padding and padding length,
malformed strings, and invalid algorithms.
suite has demonstrated a number of vulnerabilities in
different vendors' SSH products. These vulnerabilities include buffer
overflows, and they occur before any user authentication takes place.
SSHredder was primarily designed to test key exchange and other
processes that are specific to version 2 of the SSH protocol; however,
certain classes of tests are also applicable to version 1.
information about this set of vulnerabilities may be found in
Vulnerability Note VU#389665.
has published a detailed advisory (R7-0009) and the SSHredder
Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVE) has assigned the following
candidate numbers for several classes of tests performed by SSHredder:
- incorrect field lengths
* CAN-2002-1358 - lists with empty elements or multiple separators
* CAN-2002-1359 - "classic" buffer overflows
* CAN-2002-1360 - null characters in strings
will vary for different vulnerabilities and products, but
in severe cases, remote attackers could execute arbitrary code with
the privileges of the SSH process. Both SSH servers and clients are
affected, since both implement the SSH transport layer protocol. On
Microsoft Windows systems, SSH servers commonly run with SYSTEM
privileges, and on UNIX systems, SSH daemons typically run with root
privileges. In the case of SSH clients, any attacker-supplied code
would run with the privileges of the user who started the client
program, with the possible exception of SSH clients that may be
configured with an effective user ID of root (setuid root). Attackers
could also crash a vulnerable SSH process, causing a denial of
patch or upgrade
the appropriate patch or upgrade as specified by your vendor.
See Appendix A below and the Systems Affected section of VU#389665 for
access to SSH servers to trusted hosts and networks using
firewalls or other packet-filtering systems. Some SSH servers may have
the ability to restrict access based on IP addresses, or similar
effects may be achieved by using TCP wrappers or other related
can reduce the risk of attacks by only connecting to
trusted servers by IP address.
these workarounds will not prevent exploitation of these
vulnerabilities, they will make attacks somewhat more difficult, in
part by limiting the number of potential sources of attacks.
Appendix A. Vendor Information
contains information provided by vendors. When vendors
report new information, this section is updated and the changes are
noted in the revision history. If a vendor is not listed below, we
have not received their comments. The Systems Affected section of
VU#389665 contains additional vendor status information.
statement regarding this is that we are not
supports the OpenSSH product through their Cray Open
Software (COS) package. COS 3.3, available the end of December
2002, is not vulnerable. If a site is concerned, they can contact
their local Cray representive to obtain an early copy of the
OpenSSH contained in COS 3.3.
SSH products are not exploitable via these attacks. While
F-Secure SSH versions 3.1.0 build 11 and earlier crash on these
malicious packets, we did not find ways to exploit this to gain
unauthorized access or to run arbitrary code. Furthermore, the
crash occurs in a forked process so the denial of service attacks
are not possible.
UXP/V OS is not vulnerable because it does not support
AIX is not vulnerabible to the issues discussed in CERT
Vulnerability Note VU#389665.
tried the testsuite with the latest stable release of lsh,
lsh-1.4.2. Both the client and the server seem NOT VULNERABLE.
latest versions. Not Vulnerable.
testing it seems that the current version of OpenSSH (3.5)
is not vulnerable to these problems, and some limited testing shows
that no version of OpenSSH is vulnerable.
7 and CERT Coordination Center Vulnerability report VU#389665
Systems Inc. of Austin, Texas, USA, was notified regarding a
possible vulnerability with Version 2.0 of Pragma SecureShell.
Pragma Systems tested Pragma SecureShell 2.0 and the upcoming new
Version 3.0, and found that the attacks did cause a memory access
protection fault on Microsoft platforms.
research, Pragma Systems corrected the problem. The
correction of the problem leads us to believe that any attack would
not cause a Denial of Service, or the ability of random code to run
on the server.
is corrected in Pragma SecureShell Version 3.0. Any
customers with concerns regarding this vulnerability report should
contact Pragma Systems, Inc at email@example.com for
information on obtaining an upgrade free of charge. Pragma's web
site is located at www.pragmasys.com and the company can be reached
0.53b addresses vulnerabilities discovered by SSHredder.
Shell products are not exploitable via these attacks.
Appendix B. References
Vulnerability Note: VU#389665 -
* Rapid 7 Advisory: R7-0009 -
* Rapid 7 SSHredder test suite -
* IETF Draft: SSH Transport Layer Protocol -
* IETF Draft: SSH Protocol Architecture -
* Privilege Separated OpenSSH -
Coordination Center thanks Rapid7 for researching and
reporting these vulnerabilities.
is available from:
CERT/CC Contact Information
Phone: +1 412-268-7090 (24-hour hotline)
Fax: +1 412-268-6989
CERT Coordination Center
Software Engineering Institute
Carnegie Mellon University
Pittsburgh PA 15213-3890
personnel answer the hotline 08:00-17:00 EST(GMT-5) /
EDT(GMT-4) Monday through Friday; they are on call for emergencies
during other hours, on U.S. holidays, and on weekends.
urge you to encrypt sensitive information sent by email.
Our public PGP key is available from
prefer to use DES, please call the CERT hotline for more
and other security information are available from
our web site
to the CERT mailing list for advisories and bulletins,
send email to firstname.lastname@example.org. Please include in the body of your
and "CERT Coordination Center" are registered in the U.S.
Patent and Trademark Office.
Any material furnished by Carnegie Mellon University and the Software
Engineering Institute is furnished on an "as is" basis. Carnegie
Mellon University makes no warranties of any kind, either expressed
implied as to any matter including, but not limited to, warranty of
fitness for a particular purpose or merchantability, exclusivity or
results obtained from use of the material. Carnegie Mellon University
does not make any warranty of any kind with respect to freedom from
patent, trademark, or copyright infringement.
for use, disclaimers, and sponsorship information
2002 Carnegie Mellon University.
16, 2002: Initial release
-----BEGIN PGP SIGNATURE-----
Version: PGP 6.5.8
-----END PGP SIGNATURE-----